Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, Teacher Education in France: Universitisation and professionalisation – from IUFMs to ESPEs, relatif au référentiel des compétences professionnelles des métiers du professorat et de l’éducation. 1 job. ESPEs are being asked to play a major role in in-service teacher training. Now, the ESPEs have a certain autonomy in designing the content of the training, and must prepare future teachers leading to professional competencies. View aims and scope. In France the École Normale Supérieure still places freedom of study and the nurture of intellectual curiosity above questions of professional teacher training. Teaching and learning a subject is being changed by digital technologies. When IUFMs were created, the previous institutions for primary teachers’ training, Ecoles Normales, were suppressed. IUFMs had the ambition of giving all teachers a ‘common culture’. Just over 2 million are in higher education. (FOX NEWS) -- A tattoo-covered kindergarten teacher in France, who has spent nearly 500 hours under the needle, was prohibited from teaching children under the age of … Preparing teachers for diversity: The role of initial teacher education, Commission Report. These reforms have led to lots of debates and controversy, particularly about the role of universities and schools and about the balance between knowledge and pedagogy. There is still a huge amount of work to be done concerning the impact of digital technologies on pedagogy. A political debate: The government considered this reform as a major one, within the framework of the new orientation law on education. The word ‘republican’ here does not mean a political side. then take 2 years at IUFM, with the recruitment competition at the end of the 1st year. 34. This was clearly a failure of IUFMs. Students in the master’s program must take a competitive examination at the end of their first year; during their second year they work in schools to gain practical experience, as state civil service trainees. During the last 30 years, there have been several major reforms of teacher education in France. Before 1990, primary and secondary teachers were trained in different and independent ways. The attitude of some academic staff was one reason for some failures in IUFMS. Education in France has slowly drifted away from providing aid to children to neglecting the overall wellbeing of children. Teachers are prepared to teach at either the preprimary or primary level, depending on their preference and the availability of jobs in the area where they wish to teach. And concrete situations help with understanding and applying theoretical knowledge, and give input for further theoretical learning. Strong recommendations have been made to ESPEs. Every year, we hire over 1,500 American English language teaching assistants. For almost 200 years, they played a major role in preparing the instituteurs (primary teachers), and bringing people from all social classes to the profession of instituteur. The global scheme is quite similar to the IUFM one: after 3 years at university, students enter an ESPE and undergo 2 years of training. The law says that teachers must gain a Master's degree and pass the competition. Yet it was always difficult to find a fine balance between the three categories. For some of them, it may be difficult if they have some reasons to wish to be in a particular region. When IUFMs were established, there was a lack of candidates. This reform and the creation of IUFMs aimed to reinforce the coherence of teacher education: Coherence between primary and secondary teachers’ training: train them in the same institution, in the same spirit (not the same way, since in France primary teachers teach all disciplines, and secondary teachers generally teach only one discipline). IUFMs spent a lot of time and energy on designing new courses. Initial training of the majority of primary school teachers sampled in TIMSS 2015 will have taken place at a university institute of teacher education. Some resistance: IUFMs were created as ‘university institutes’, yet outside universities. Secondary teachers were trained at university. Training them in the same institution, with similar programmes of the same duration, and paying them the same salary supported the idea that the two professions had the same dignity. Use the links below to access the details of France's national contacts, to find out more about its system for inclusive education and to explore publications, country data, projects and news relating to France. From 1992 to 2011, primary school teachers were required to hold a diploma certifying at least three years of academic study in higher education in order to apply for teaching positions. Americans could apply to be school teachers through the Teaching Assistant Program in France (TAPIF). 3099067 At the beginning, many secondary student teachers had the feeling that only the subject content was important in order to become a teacher, and they were quite critical of pedagogy and didactics. Workplaces. This is linked with the teaching personnel in IUFMs and ESPEs: in 1990, all the teaching staff of the previous Ecoles Normales were integrated into IUFMs. The main motto which was launched with the creation of the IUFMs was “Recruit more, train better”. France joined the Agency in 1996. The French education system and teacher training were the envy of American and Irish educational experts during the centenary of the French Revolution. For primary teachers, the reform increased the level of the recruitment: before, you could enter an Ecole Normale 2 years after gaining the baccalauréat. As a consequence, the reform was considered by some people as a ‘left-wing reform’, and it was therefore strongly criticised by the right-wing parties. The ATEE aims to enhance the quality of Teacher Education in Europe through active dialogue and international exchange of research and practice in initial and in-service teacher education. They should be given preparation of the same quality (and duration) as secondary teachers (this led to an increase in the preparation by one year). For instance, IREMs (Research Institutes on Mathematics Education) were created in universities (one in each académie) around 1970. Information and communication technology must be integrated into the teaching profession. Teaching Assistant Program in France (TAPIF) This program provides teacher’s assistants to public primary and secondary schools around France. Primary teachers were trained in Ecoles Normales. Most ‘played the game’ and contributed to the reform, but for some of them it was a huge change of culture and a difficult transition. This covers all the dimensions of their profession (teaching, pedagogy, administration, relationship with colleagues, with the school management, with parents, and with other partners). In French high schools, teachers are only present to teach their classes and then they leave. This centralisation has consequences for the way teachers are trained and recruited. They lost part of their autonomy and became more dependent on university policy. Campus-france.svg 772 × 237; 29 KB. There was also some resistance from inspectors. Some main principles lay at the core of the reform: Being a teacher is a profession that must be learnt and prepared. The creation of IUFMs was a big step forward, and triggered many developments. Journal Officiel de la République française. The creation of IUFMs was supposed to attract a large number of students. At that time, there was a lot of funding and posts for teacher in-service training. There is a risk of just adding and juxtaposing too many modules about all the components which appear necessary for a teacher. These reforms have led to lots of debates and controversy about the role of universities and the role of schools in teacher education, the articulation between theory and practice, the balance between knowledge and pedagogy etc. The Ministry of National Education, Higher Education, and Research defines the number of jobs available each year, and any qualified citizen of the European Union may apply. The recent creation of ESPEs is bringing new dynamism to teacher education, and reactivating the reflections on the methods and content of teacher education. Further, you will study pedagogics, which focuses on topics like child development psychology, working with pupils with special needs, and working in a multicultural environment. The duration of the training, its organisation, and its content have been revamped. The role of universities in teacher education has been a difficult question. France: 17.52 2011: 114: Japan: 17.5 2011: 115: Bulgaria: 17.46 2011: 116: Singapore : 17.44 2009: 117: Canada: 17.42 ... Education > Pupil-teacher ratio, primary: Countries Compared Map. Master of Education (M.Ed) in Teacher Education with a concentration in French Education. There is a process for appointing them, taking their wishes and different priority criteria into account. The success of the new reform (ESPEs) depends considerably on the way the competitions will evolve and become more professionally oriented. The teaching profession needs to be permanently in a ‘trainee’ spirit. France has to recruit around 15,000 to 20,000 teachers per year. The previous recruitment competitions were mostly based on academic knowledge in the different school subjects; a reform of the competitions has now been launched, aiming to give the competitions strong professional content. Such students have to spend one more year on the preparation, but some adapted content must be designed for them. The educational policy is fixed at the national level; curricula and contents are designed by the Ministry of Education. Such debates were sometimes passionate and even violent! By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. Professional development was not their topic! the on-going efforts, policies and practices of teacher education in France; makes a SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities, threat) analysis of French teacher education system; and identifies best adop-table teacher education policies and practices from France. After passing the CRPE, candidates become teachers in training in the Academy department in which they were recruited. Very tough debates unfolded in the press. The majority of schools in France are state schools. IUFMs were very creative in designing new ways for articulating theory and practice. A question was often raised in IUFMs: should a teacher trainer be or have been a school teacher? Finding gifted candidates is not enough! IUFMs have tried to design integrated curricula, taking all of the components of the training into account, but articulating and integrating them in a coherent way. They first had to obtain a licence (Bachelor degree) in the subject of their choice, then prepare at university for the State competitive examination to be recruited. Equalising the dignity of primary teachers and secondary teachers was also a main point. But how to become a secondary teacher was not so clear. They were created at the beginning of the 19th century, and progressively spread across the country. Teacher training must enable teachers to prepare responsible citizens of the digital society; teacher training must prepare professionals of pedagogy: ‘pedagogical engineers’, ‘digital pedagogical designers’. Keywords. The first step to becoming a primary school teacher in France is to pass the CRPE (concours de recrutement de professeurs des écoles), a competitive examination at the regional education authority level (académie). So the first year was mainly focussed on preparation for the recruitment competition and, after passing the competition, during the 2nd year, students were given the status of ‘trainee-teachers’ and paid as civil servants. And, as a consequence, secondary and primary teachers would then receive the same salaries. While you need protein, healthy fats, and many vitamins and minerals for overall health, the one food that can help you stay fuller longer and keep your weight down is fiber-rich foods. The majority of schools in France are state schools. This gave IUFMs a culture which was considered as too primary, and it sometimes led to difficult problems. But now there is a significant number of students who have done something else in between. The normal Master's degree for becoming a teacher is the new MEEF Master's degree, but many students already have another type of Master's degree, and of course they are entitled to take the recruitment competition, but they need a special curriculum in order to receive full professional preparation. Coherence between theory and practice, articulating them. Future teachers cannot acquire all the necessary knowledge and competencies for their whole career during their initial training! View aims and scope Submit your article Guide for authors. IUFMs aimed at providing future teachers with an academic context, linked to research and with universities. neutrAlity the curriculum and content of teaching have to respect the principle of neutrality. For instance, being more academic was sometimes understood as more theoretical, giving some students the sense that they were not well prepared enough for the real-life situations they encountered in schools. But it was important that these teaching practice periods were strongly connected to the courses in the IUFM: the courses gave tools for practising and for analysing what had happened in the classroom; and, back in the IUFM, students had sessions for analysing what had happened during the teaching practice (‘practice analysis seminars’). The new program also better prepares teachers for the diverse responsibilities of their role today. Thus, the French tradition was to recruit teachers and then train them, which had several consequences: the recruitment did not take professional competency into account and was based on subject knowledge; universities were used to preparing future teachers only for subject content since the professional preparation was not their responsibility. This was done through ‘common modules’ attended by future primary and secondary teachers, based on the common culture of schools and addressing, for instance, the uniqueness of a subject throughout primary and secondary school, and the uniqueness of a pupil throughout schooling. Before IUFMs had been created, secondary teaching recruitment competitions were prepared for in universities, so some had the feeling that these preparations had been stolen from them! At the end of the first year of university study, all preprimary and primary school teachers were required to take a competitive examination, after which successful students became trainee teachers and were paid for a compulsory year of training. Most French students continue on to finish their education at age 18, by passing the baccalauréat (le bac)examination, and 50% of 18-21 year olds participate in higher education. In the 1970s and 1980s, we saw the development of both educational research and in-service teacher training. This calls for strong cooperation between the trainers at IUFMs and the tutors in schools. Teacher Education Specific to Mathematics and Science. Teacher education is, of course, essential in the development of digital technologies in education. At that time, there was a lack of candidates for becoming a teacher. Some IUFMs opened new laboratories for educational research in connection with universities. However, in the case of IUFMs, the law only gave very short general statements: “An IUFM will be created in each académie, from 1 September 1990, attached to one or several universities […]. From age six onwards, education remains compulsory until age 16. In addition to specified course work in the major field, the teacher education student must fulfill certain other requirements as well as maintain a minimum cumulative GPA of 2.50/4.00 in all LAS and General Education requirements and a GPA of 3.00/4.00 or greater in courses for the Teacher Education in French major including education courses. Another important issue for teacher education is linking theory and practice, linking courses at IUFM or ESPE with school practice. A ‘national framework’ for the curriculum of the MEEF Master's degree (Ministerial Order, 27 August 2013), to be followed by universities and ESPEs in order to gain national accreditation for delivering the MEEF Master's degree (Journal officiel de la République française 2013). Share research on key … Further, during the second year, teaching half-time in a school, writing a dissertation, and preparing the second part of the Master's degree is considered a huge workload. A National Committee has been appointed in order to follow up implementation of the reform. Sign in to set up alerts. But there was an increasing gap between the training and the content of the recruitment competition. 3. But some pedagogy or didactics courses sometimes looked too theoretical and were badly received by students. Recommended articles lists articles that we recommend and is powered by our AI driven recommendation engine. This was mainly decided for economic reasons (around 16,000 positions were cancelled). Of course, 25 years later, many of the previous Ecoles Normales teachers have retired, and it is now easier to have a well-balanced staff in ESPEs. Références • Henry, M. : 2000, Evolution and Prospects of Preservice Secondary Teacher Education in France. There are more than 3,500 public and private institutes of higher education in France: 72 universities, 25 multi-institute campuses, 271 Doctoral schools, 227 engineering schools authorised to award the title of engineer, 220 business and management schools, 45 post-secondary public schools of art, 22 schools of architecture and 3,000 private schools and institutes. The Education System in France. The first step to becoming a primary school teacher in France is to pass the CRPE (concours de recrutement de professeurs des écoles), a competitive examination at the regional education authority level (académie). Fees can be high, although some expat relocation packages cover this. toggle. France had quite poor results in the PISA evaluations, and many questions were raised about the quality of the French education system. Explore journal content Latest issue Articles in press Article collections All issues. Two main national documents were published by the Ministry when this change took place: A ‘reference table’ of professional competencies for the profession of teaching education, stating the objectives and common culture for all education professionals to be acquired during the initial training and throughout lifelong training. • Primary teachers are appointed at the level of académie (posted anywhere in France). Clearly, for 20 years IUFMs were the actors behind huge progress in teacher education in France. However, teachers must accept such changes and evolutions, and be aware of the core role of schools when knowledge can be accessible in many other places. All rights reserved. New competencies are now necessary for teachers, and new professions are appearing. All competitions are organised in two parts: admissibilité (a written examination) and admission (an oral examination). A list of 14 competencies was designed by the Ministry (Ministerial Order, 1 July 2013) (Journal officiel de la République française 2013). The Teaching Assistant Program in France (TAPIF) is the American cohort of the Programme d'échange d'assistants de langue vivante, a ... while also providing young educators around the world with initial international teaching experience and first-hand knowledge of French language and culture. As a rule, in primary schools in France, teachers do not specialize in a particular subject but are responsible for teaching all subjects to their class. It was also clear for primary teachers, with the Ecoles Normales. At the end of the 2nd year, an examination confirmed most of the trainee-teachers as permanent teachers. This means that one has a clear vision of what the teaching profession is, and what the necessary professional competencies are. This means that IUFMS had some similar characteristics to universities concerning teaching, research, staff, administration, but were independent institutions. But the reform will only be efficient if the way teachers are recruited evolves. Education in France is organized in a highly centralized manner, with many subdivisions. The educational policy is fixed at the national level; curricula and contents are designed by the Ministry of Education. However, the training must also be more professional. Candidates were recruited into the first year based on either their secondary school credentials or subsequent interviews. • If one has passed the concours, there will be an other year of teacher training. ‘Universitariser, professionnaliser’: The double aim of IUFMs was to make teacher preparation more academic and more professional. France is known for having a very centralised education system. More academic, because up to then primary teachers were not trained at university, and because secondary teachers had an academic education only about their subject, not about pedagogy or professional preparation. Central African Republic has had the highest pupil-teacher ratio, primary since 1989. It seems clear now that initial training without in-service training will not be effective enough. The creation of ESPEs has clearly restarted the process: in the last 2 years the number of students in ESPEs has increased. There is no need to include in pre-service training all the competencies a teacher should acquire during his/her career. 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