In 1893, New Zealand became the first self-governing nation to extend the right to vote to women and, in 1895, the women of South Australia also became the first to obtain the right to stand for Parliament. Tensions between the British Empire and the Boer republics led to the Boer Wars, fought on and off between the 1880s and 1902, ending in a British victory. By 1942, German and Italian armies ruled Norway, the Low Countries, France, the Balkans, Central Europe, part of Russia, and most of North Africa. In North America, English soldiers and colonial troops defeated the French, and in India the French were also defeated by England. Under the vassals were the peasants or serfs. Most Western European nations had some degree of democracy, and two new national states had been created, Italy and Germany. The Germans and French also established colonies in Central Africa. In 1916, militant Irish republicans staged a rising and proclaimed a republic. EMBED (for hosted blogs and item tags) Want more? The United States and Britain faced serious downturn, while Portugal, Greece, Ireland and Iceland faced major debt crises. Meanwhile, the Spanish Empire began to unravel as French occupation of Spain weakened Spain's hold over its colonies, providing an opening for nationalist revolutions in Spanish America. There were changes throughout the West in science, religion and culture between 1815 and 1870. Canada continued to evolve its own national identity in the post-war period. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was an important European center for the development of modern social and political ideas. According to tradition, it was a Romanized Briton, Saint Patrick who introduced Christianity to Ireland around the 5th century. Prussia won the war and gained two border territories, Alsace and Lorraine, from France. Large numbers from those areas have also been coming illegally, and the solution to this problem has produced much debate in the U.S. On 11 September 2001, the United States suffered the worst terrorist attack in its history. Men of intelligence usually joined religious orders and those of intellectual, administrative or diplomatic skill could advance beyond the usual restraints of society – leading churchmen from faraway lands were accepted in local bishoprics, linking European thought across wide distances. Communism was also atheistic, since, according to Marx, religion was simply a tool used by the dominant class to keep the oppressed class docile. In England, when the Pope failed to grant King Henry VIII a divorce, he declared himself head of the Church in England (founding what would evolve into today's Church of England and Anglican Communion). NATO members agreed that if any one of them were attacked, they would all consider themselves attacked and retaliate. Modern genetics started with Gregor Johann Mendel, a German-Czech Augustinian monk who studied the nature of inheritance in plants. The late 1930s saw a series of violations of the Versailles Treaty by Germany, however, France and Britain refused to act. In the mid-19th century, Ireland suffered a devastating famine, which killed 10% of the population[36] and led to massive emigration: see Irish diaspora. In 1962, however, Algeria gained independence from France. The other major Western revolution at the turn of the 19th century was the French Revolution. These changes were often slow however, with Western society as a whole remaining primarily agricultural for decades. It involved several powers fighting on several continents. John P. McKay, Bennett D. Hill, John Buckler, Clare Haru Crowston. The population growth in the American West led to the creation of many new western states, and by 1912 all the land of the contiguous U.S. was part of a state, bringing the total to 48. Use the interactive map by clicking on the pins to find your local group and their contact details, or search by group name or location. In 1808, when Joseph Bonaparte was installed as the Spanish King by the Napoleonic French, the Spanish resistance resorted to governing Juntas. Independence for French Indochina came only after a great conflict. Factory work could often be brutal. In the 20th century, absolute monarchy disappeared from Europe, and despite episodes of Fascism and Communism, by the close of the century, virtually all of Europe was electing its leaders democratically. By the beginning of the 11th century Scandinavia was divided into three kingdoms, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, all of which were Christian and part of Western civilization. With the feudal system all but gone, nobles lost their traditional source of power. Possibly the greatest change in the English-speaking world and the West as a whole following the Napoleonic Wars was the Industrial Revolution. [39] In 1801, a new political entity was formed, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, thus increasing the number of Catholics in the new state. Other Romantic writers included Sir Walter Scott, Lord Byron, Alexander Pushkin, Victor Hugo, and Goethe. The Scottish Enlightenment was a period in 18th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. The Soviets captured Berlin and Hitler committed suicide. They then expanded into neighbouring Burma. From 1100, he wrote: "every branch of life – action, philosophy, organisation, technology [experienced an] extraordinary outpouring of energy, an intensification of existence". The Maori and Australian Aborigines had been largely dispossessed and disenfranchised during the 19th and early 20th centuries, but relations between the descendants of European settlers and the Indigenous peoples of Australia and New Zealand began to improve through legislative and social reform over the post-war period corresponding with the civil rights movement in North America. In Germany, after calls from Reagan to Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall, the people of East and West Berlin tore down the wall and East Germany's Communist government was voted out. The war had cost millions of lives and led many in the West to develop a strong distaste for war. The middle class grew even more influential and wealthy. In France, the king, Louis-Philippe, was overthrown and a republic was declared. The government controlled every aspect of its citizens' lives, from maintaining loyalty to the Communist Party to persecuting religion. [citation needed], As the Medieval period progressed, the aristocratic military ideal of Chivalry and institution of knighthood based around courtesy and service to others became culturally important. The last Ottoman sultan was overthrown by the Turkish nationalist revolutionary named Atatürk and the Ottoman homeland of Turkey was declared a republic. COACH: Jeffrey Carter MANAGER: Graeme … Each source is accompanied by helpful study questions. The prospect of a third world war was made even more frightening by the fact that it would almost certainly be a nuclear war. Newfoundland united with Canada in 1949 and the Irish Free State came to an end in 1937, when the citizens voted by referendum to replace its 1922 constitution. The 1215 Charter required the King to proclaim certain liberties, and accept that his will was not arbitrary — for example by explicitly accepting that no "freeman" (non-serf) could be punished except through the law of the land, a right which is still in existence today. A free colony was established at South Australia in 1836 with a vision for a province of the British Empire with political and religious freedoms. Home Page of FamilyHistoryWA, the primary family history and genealogy society in Western Australia. Churches began being built in the Romanesque style for the first time in centuries. These include some of the northern peoples (i.e., Inuit), some peoples in the Yucatán, Amazonian forest dwellers, and various Andean groups. Latin America was largely free from foreign rule throughout this period, although the United States and Britain had a great deal of influence over the region. The Catholic Church responded to the Reformation with the Counter Reformation. The country has rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations. Following the Iraq war, however, an insurgency made up of a number of domestic and foreign factions has cost many lives and made establishing a government very hard. Perhaps the most ambitious change by Europeans was the construction of the Suez Canal in Egypt, allowing ships to travel from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean without having to go all the way around Africa. Fearing he would try to outlaw slavery in the whole country, several southern states seceded, forming the Confederate States of America, electing their own president and raising their own army. Alcoholic beverages were outlawed in the United States and women were granted the right to vote. By then, the British experience had already contributed to the American Revolution. From the end of World War II almost until the start of the 21st century, Western and world politics were dominated by the state of tensions and conflict between the world's two Superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. The first peace-keeping constables consisted of fifteen men, working part time and paid for services they performed on behalf of the Courts and local Justices. The Napoleonic Wars were a series of conflicts involving Napoleon's French Empire and changing sets of European allies by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. In 1789 France faced an economical crisis. The nobles gave land to vassals, who served as knights to defend their monarch or noble. When the Supreme Central Junta of Seville fell to the French in 1810, the Spanish American colonies developed themselves governing Juntas in the name of the deposed King Ferdinand VII (upon the concept known as "Retroversion of the Sovereignty to the People"). 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